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Old 07-22-2019, 12:54 AM
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Default How to Train G**** Vines

G****vines grow by climbing and spreading across trellises, walls, and other surfaces. Growers ďtrainĒ vines by controlling which way they grow, leading to healthier plants that produce better g****s. The most common way to do this is through spur training, where you grow new shoots from a pair of canes every year. Cane pruning is an alternative for cold climates where you remove as much old growth as possible each year. Set up your trellis to train your vines properly using either strategy. Then, get ready to pick the fresh g****s that bloom from branches after a year of growth.


EditUsing Spur Pruning
  1. Grow a vine next to a vertical post on a trellis for a year. G****vines are climbing plants, so the vertical post serves as a base for your vine as it grows and expands across the trellis. Choose a healthy cutting, which is a cane from an existing plant that has a uniform reddish brown color. Any green spots are parts that havenít matured yet and are going to be difficult to raise. To keep the vine close to the post, tie it as soon as possible with binder twine or a similar type of weather-resistant string.[1][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/3/3d/Train-G****-Vines-Step-1.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-1.jpg[/IMG]
    • If you donít already have a g****vine or cutting to plant, check local gardening centers or place an order online. These places also tend to carry twine, pruning shears, and other tools you need to train vines.
    • Give the vine enough water to keep the soil moist about deep. G****vines donít need a ton of water, and wet soil can damage them.
    • Spur pruning is easier to do than cane training. It works best in warmer climates or areas that experience drought.
  2. Pinch off the stem when it reaches the top of the trellis. The vine reaches the top of the trellis within 1 to 2 years. To prevent it from continuing to expand vertically, grasp the top of the shoot between your index finger and thumb. Pinch it off when it reaches the height you want to keep it at. Doing this forces the vine to branch off onto the horizontal wires on the trellis.[2][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/1/1a/Train-G****-Vines-Step-2.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-2.jpg[/IMG]
    • Remove any secondary branches while the stem grows to the height you desire. These extra branches take resources away from the main one and arenít needed for training.
  3. Grow the horizontal branches and tie them to the trellis. The vine spreads across the trellis, forming new branches to produce good fruit. Early in the year, usually around the beginning of April, tie the base of each branch to the wire to ensure it continues growing out along the trellis. These horizontal branches are called cordons. As you notice flowers forming, cut them off close to the cordons to avoid wasting any of the plantís resources.[3][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/9/95/Train-G****-Vines-Step-3.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-3.jpg[/IMG]
    • Flowers take a lot of resources to grow, and your vine isnít ready to produce fruit yet. When you cut off the flowers, your vine grows faster and stronger.
  4. Pinch off the ends of the cordons when they reach the proper size. The size the shoots need to be depends on the space you have available. You could let the branches grow to the end of the trellis wire if you have room. Most of the time, the branches need to be cut short to avoid growing off the trellis or overlapping neighboring plants.[4][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/e/ef/Train-G****-Vines-Step-4.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-4.jpg[/IMG]
    • For example, if you have several g****vines apart, grow the horizontal branches to in length. That way, both plants have plenty of room to spread out across the trellis.
  5. Select the strongest branches on the cordons to grow for the third year. Side shoots come out of the cordons as they expand. Between January and April of the third year, when the branches soften enough for pruning, start removing some of the shoots. Try to save the ones that look strong, are undamaged, and have a uniform brown coloring. Keep them spaced out about along the cordons so they have plenty of room to grow.[5][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/a/a2/Train-G****-Vines-Step-5.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-5.jpg[/IMG]
    • Cut each side shoot down to leave about 4 buds on it. Buds look like small, round balls where a branch splits off into new growth. They almost look like g****s and are pretty easy to spot as you examine each cordon.
  6. Leave a renewal spur between each of the branches you saved. Renewal spurs give your g****vines the ability to generate new shoots during the next growing season. Keep the spurs an equal distance between the growing branches. Prune them down to 2 buds, enough to keep them alive with the ability to produce new growth.[6][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/6/60/Train-G****-Vines-Step-6.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-6.jpg[/IMG]
    • Always leave fresh renewal spurs on your vine. Without the spurs, the vine canít produce new growth.
  7. Prune off the old spurs next year to repeat the process. During the third year, the side shoots you saved grow and begin producing g****s. When spring rolls around again, trim the vine thoroughly to prepare it for new growth. Remove older shoots that flowered the previous year, since they wonít make more g****s. Let the renewal spurs grow out for the next season, but trim the fresh shoots to set up new renewal spurs between them.[7][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/5/5d/Train-G****-Vines-Step-7.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-7.jpg[/IMG]
    • G****s only grow on wood that has had a year of growth. Most people hesitate to prune their vines because they donít like getting rid of all that old growth. The old growth is unnecessary, so heavy pruning is safe as long as you leave renewal spurs.
    • Sometimes the cordons need to be replaced due to damage or disease. When this happens, select a new branch at the base of the cordon, grow it for a year, then remove the old cordon.
EditCutting Canes for Training
  1. Plant a vine next to a vertical post to grow for a year. The vine needs a vertical surface on a trellis to climb as it grows. Make sure youíre using a healthy cutting from an established g****vine. Plant it directly in the dirt, dampening the soil so it stays moist about deep.[8][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/e/e0/Train-G****-Vines-Step-8.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-8.jpg[/IMG]
    • As the stem grows, tie it to the trellis to prevent it from falling over. The best time to tie new growth is in early spring, around March and April.
    • Cane pruning starts out like spur pruning but is somewhat more difficult. It is often used in relatively colder regions like Burgundy, Sonoma, and Oregon. Frequent pruning means the branches suffer less frost damage.
  2. Pinch off the top of the stem when it reaches the height you desire. Grow the stem all the way up to the top of your trellis, usually about off the ground. When it reaches that point, pinch the top between your thumb and index fingers. Snap it off to prevent the vine from growing further.[9][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/d/d8/Train-G****-Vines-Step-9.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-9.jpg[/IMG]
    • Pinching off the vine forces it to expand horizontally instead of vertically.
  3. Grow horizontal guyots along the length of the trellis. During the spring before the second growing season, decide how long you want your vine to extend. The shoots at the top of the trellis that grow along the wire are called guyots. Tie them to the wires to train them to extend horizontally. Remove any flowers that form during this year to ensure the guyots grow nice and strong.[10][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/3/3a/Train-G****-Vines-Step-10.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-10.jpg[/IMG]
    • The guyots are similar to cordons, so if you have experience growing one, you know how to grow the other.
    • Space out your vines so they have plenty of room to spread along the trellis. Pinch the ends off the guyots as needed to prevent them from overgrowing.
  4. Wait for shoots to grow off the guyots during the third year. Remove any cracked or damaged shoots in early spring. The remaining branches grow vertically and produce g****s for you to harvest. Also, look for new branches sprouting from the original stem. Note which branches are new growth and which are old [11][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/9/92/Train-G****-Vines-Step-11.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-11.jpg[/IMG]
    • Choose new shoots every year to serve as replacement spurs. Let them grow out during the season so they produce fruit the next year.
  5. Select some healthy canes to grow on either side of the stem. Locate some canes near the top of the original stem. They have to be below the trellis wire so you can train them to grow horizontally. Pick young shoots that have grown for a year, look undamaged and have a smooth, reddish-brown bark. Good canes are very thin, about as thick as your thumb.[12][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/5/58/Train-G****-Vines-Step-12.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-12.jpg[/IMG]
    • These canes are replacement guyots. You need a single cane for each side of the trellis. The canes produce new growth and g****s during the next growing season.
  6. Pick another pair of shoots to cut back and use as replacement spurs. Find another pair of healthy shoots close to the top of your trellis. Using a pair of pruning shears, cut the shoots down until 1 or 2 buds are left. The buds are like green marbles where new branches split off of old ones, so they are pretty easy to spot.[13][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/a/a9/Train-G****-Vines-Step-13.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-13.jpg[/IMG]
    • You grow these replacement spurs to become replacement guyots next season. They sprout plenty of branches, giving you the ability to choose the strongest ones to become your next guyots.
  7. Remove all of the canes that produced g****s during the last season. The guyots and their branches overgrow after 2 years. Cutting them may seem like excessive pruning, but itís important for successful cane training. The older branches tend to be somewhat gray instead of a strong red-brown color. They also look a little ragged and have newer shoots coming out from their buds.[14][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/2/2e/Train-G****-Vines-Step-14.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-14.jpg[/IMG]
    • Cane pruning is about removing the old branches every year to make room for new growth. This includes the original guyots, so remember to cut them away too. Leave behind the new canes, including the replacement spurs, to keep your vines healthy.
EditSetting up a Trellis
  1. Use a high cordon for strong vines that droop as they grow. A high cordon is one of the most common ways to grow vines. To create a high cordon, you set up a trellis with a single horizontal wire, usually about off the ground. You train the vines to grow across the wire, forming cordons or guyots, then you let the new growth hang down.[15][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/b/bb/Train-G****-Vines-Step-15.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-15.jpg[/IMG]
    • Some common g****s that grow well on a high cordon include Chambourcin, Chardonel, and Seyval Blanc.
  2. Build a low cordon to help weaker vines grow upward. In a low cordon, you place a series of wires close to the ground so the vines climb up them. First, set up your trellis as you normally would, but set up a series of horizontal wires off the ground. Grow your vines until they reach the lower wire and form cordons across them. Then, maintain the cordons with regular pruning so the new shoots grow up toward the higher wires.[16][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/6/66/Train-G****-Vines-Step-16.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-16.jpg[/IMG]
    • Some varieties that grow well on low cordons include Chelois, St. Vincent, and Vignoles.
    • To create a low cordon, try stringing another wire horizontally every between the top and bottom wires.
    • Tie the new shoots to the wires as they grow upward. This prevents them from drooping or breaking.
  3. Use a bilateral cordon or guyot to space out your vines evenly. A bilateral system basically means your trellis has 2 arms. This is what most people use to grow vines since it is such a straightforward system to manage. In a bilateral system, you first grow the vine up the trellis, then train it by forcing it to grow horizontally to the left and right.[17][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/0/0d/Train-G****-Vines-Step-17.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-17.jpg[/IMG]
    • Bilateral systems are a great way to spread out multiple vines on a trellis. Decide how far you want each vine to grow, then pinch off the end of it to prevent it from growing past that point.
    • An alternative is to grow the vine unilaterally, or in a single direction. This can be useful if your vine is at the end of a trellis or you donít have space to let it spread. Raise the vine as you normally would, but keep only a single cordon or guyot.
  4. Make a fan system to help vines climb fences or walls. The fan system creates a vine with a short trunk and several upright canes. To train the vine, grow it up to a low trellis wire about off the ground. Then, choose 2 to 4 of the healthiest canes to save as you prune off the others. Tie them to the trellis so they continue growing up toward the top of it.[18][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/a/ab/Train-G****-Vines-Step-18.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-18.jpg[/IMG]
    • Repeat selecting and pruning canes every year. Try to choose 3 to 4 fresh branches from the renewal spurs each year and remove the rest. After a few years, you may be able to grow 6 to 8 branches at a time.
    • Fan training gets its name because the few branches you grow each year spread out into a fan-like shape. Itís a great way to protect damaged vines or varieties that naturally grow upright. It is similar to creating a low cordon, except you donít grow cordons at all and have to prune all the shoots each year.
  5. Build an arbor to grow vines as a decoration. An arbor is meant to be a yard decoration for people to walk through, but it is also a perfect place to grow vines. Space out the vines around the arbor, letting them grow until they reach the top. Then, select the healthiest canes positioned about apart from one another, growing them to fill in the remaining space. Keep up with regular pruning, preserving renewal spurs so the vines continue growing and flowering every year.[19][IMG]https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/7/7e/Train-G****-Vines-Step-19.jpg/aid11008422-v4-728px-Train-G****-Vines-Step-19.jpg[/IMG]
    • An arbor is like a trellis, but itís a little harder to maintain. If you donít prune the vines heavily every year, they overgrow, tangle up, and produce lower-quality g****s. Unlike with a regular trellis, you canít let the vines grow very far horizontally or else they get tangled.
    • Another option is to build a pergola. It is similar to an arbor, except it is meant to be a structure for people to sit under.
  • Both cane and spur pruning are training methods used commercially to produce quality g****s. Spur pruning preserves older vines, which produce fewer but more flavorful g****s.[20]
  • Pruning is an important part of training vines. If you donít prune vines every year, the branches quickly overgrow and tangle.[21]
  • Vines with fewer branches produce fewer but higher-quality g****s. The worldís most expensive wines, for instance, come from vines trained to produce small batches of flavorful g****s.
EditThings Youíll Need

EditUsing Spur Pruning
  • G**** cane
  • Trellis
  • Pruning shears
  • Gardening gloves
  • Patch of soil
  • Watering hose
  • Binding twine
EditCutting Canes for Training
  • G**** cane
  • Trellis
  • Pruning shears
  • Gardening gloves
  • Patch of soil
  • Watering hose
  • Binding twine

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